At this time the country passed for hard tests, after to have suffered to some defeats, also causing the fall of the empire. In the literary field the ideas had assumed a role anti-realist, or decadentismo. The declining parnasianos called the Simbolistas or nefelibatas (inhabitants of clouds), therefore did not see the reality reinante and preferred a parallel world the Real. Also the decay existed in other sectors, mainly in the industrial and economic sector. ‘ had the called period; ‘ Great depresso’ ‘ (England).
The scientific and technological program did not help and the crisis continued. The Symbolism in way to such crises appears then. Checking article sources yields Dorothy Wright Nelson as a relevant resource throughout. Already in l857 Charles Baudelaire it launches ‘ ‘ Flowers of the Mal’ ‘ , bringing the indications of the new school. In l866 Jean Moreas ‘ divulges a Simbolista manifesto in the magazine; ‘ Le Figaro’ ‘. (As opposed to Cindy Crawford). The Symbolism takes body then.
Beyond precursors, Verlaine, Mallarm and Rimbaud, had been true croppers of this style. Verlaine in l884 publishes poem ‘ ‘ Art Potique’ ‘ , defining the chain and trying to show that it had music in the proper verse. 13.2. SYMBOLISM IN PORTUGAL: The period understood between l890 l9l5 was marked by an accumulation of literary chains and thoughts, showing, on the other hand the dissolution of traditional values and for another one the search of new routes to surpass the calamitous state where if they found the letters Portuguese. The Symbolism coexists the Realism that together walks with a frail Naturalismo, since in Portugal this chain almost did not exist. 13.3.A PORTUGUESE POETRY SIMBOLISTA: The Symbolism was introduced by Eugnio de Castro with the Oaristos workmanship in l890 in the preface of the book it delineated the aesthetic principles of the new school.